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Mapping conditions in Rakhine State

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Executive summary

The Australian Strategic Policy Institute's International Cyber Policy Centre has combined open-source data with the collection and analysis of new satellite imagery to assess the current status of settlements in northern Rakhine State, Myanmar, which were burned, damaged or destroyed in 2017. As part of this research project, we have also mapped potential repatriation camps and military bases constructed on the sites of former Rohingya settlements.

Our research does not support assertions that conditions are in place to support a safe, dignified and sustainable return of Rohingya refugees to Rakhine State. Satellite analysis shows minimal preparation for a return of half a million refugees. The preparations that are being made raise significant concerns about the conditions under which returning Rohingya would be expected to live. Ongoing violence, instability, disruptions to internet and communications technologies and the lack of information about the security situation in Rakhine add to those concerns.

This research seeks to add to the evidence base available to policymakers and relevant stakeholders about conditions in northern Rakhine, and Rakhine State more broadly. It also seeks to contribute to informed discussions about the best path towards a safe, dignified and sustainable future for the Rohingya refugees.

Online report

Our findings and research methodology has been compiled as an interactive report which is available here.

Link to online research tool

ADF

Australian Defence Force

ACSC

Australian Cyber Security Centre

IEC

the International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IoT

Internet of Things

IoTAA

Internet of Things Alliance Australia

ISO

International Organisation for Standardization

USB

universal serial bus

IIOT

Industrial Internet of Things

ASD

Australian Signals Directorate

CCP

Chinese Communist Party

MERICS

Mercator Institute for China Studies

PRC

Peoples Republic of China

VPN

virtual private network

AI

Artificial Intelligence

SCS

Social Credit System

BRI

One Belt, One Road initiative

CETC

China Electronics Technology Group Corporation

NGO

nongovernment organisation

RFID

radio-frequency identification

CFIUS

Committee on Foreign Investment in the US

SVAIL

Silicon Valley Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

UTS

University of Technology Sydney

ATO

Australian Taxation Office

COAG

Council of Australian Governments

DHS

Department of Human Services

DTA

Digital Transformation Agency

FIS

Face Identification Service

FVS

Face Verification Service

TDIF

Trusted Digital Identity Framework

NUDT

National University of Defense Technology

PLAIEU

PLA Information Engineering University

RFEU

Rocket Force Engineering University

STEM

science, technology, engineering and mathematics

UNSW

University of New South Wales

ZISTI

Zhengzhou Information Science and Technology Institute

AFP

Australian Federal Police

ACIC

Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission

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North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

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Action for Peacekeeping

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

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Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations

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Peacekeeping Training Centre (Timor-Leste)

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Timor-Leste Defence Force

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Multinational Force and Observers

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UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic

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UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali

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UN Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Papua New Guinea Defence Force

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National Police of Timor-Leste

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Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands

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Republic of Fiji Military Forces

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Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary

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Royal Solomon Islands Police Force

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UN Assistance Mission for Iraq

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UN–African Union Mission in Darfur

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UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda

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UN Angola Verification Mission

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UN Disengagement Observer Force

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UN Integrated Peacebuilding Office for Guinea-Bissau

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UN Interim Security Force for Abyei

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UN Integrated Mission in East Timor

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UN Office in East Timor

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UN Supervision Mission in Syria

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UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia

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UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium

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UN Transitional Administration in East Timor

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UN Truce Supervision Organization